The More You Know: Media and Power

Case Studies from UW Bothell Media & Communication Studies

Works cited / Suggested Reading list

  • Ago, Christian Toto  •  1 Year. “What About These Muslim Characters, Obama?” Hollywood in Toto. N.p., 03 Feb. 2016. Web.
  • Aguilera-Carnerero C, Azeez A. ‘Islamonausea, not Islamophobia’: The many faces of cyber hate speech. Journal Of Arab & Muslim Media Research [serial online]. April 2016;9(1):21-40. Available from: Communication & Mass Media Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed February 27, 2017.
    • In the article, “‘Islamonausea, not Islamophobia’: The many faces of cyber hate speech”, by Carmen Aguilera-Carnerero and Abdul Halik Azeez the point is to articulate research that shows discourse taking place on social media promotes negative representations and stereotypes involving violence and war towards Muslims. The argument is focused on examining over 10,000 tweets grouped by using the hashtag #jihad by average Internet users to articulate Cyber Islamophobia, which is split in two categories: individual Islamophobia and institutional Islamophobia. Topics covered are the Islamophobic/racist bias backgrounds of the netizen’s putting forward the discourse, identifying virtual communities surrounded by certain religious and socio-political values, and the correlations between those communities and how social media users are evaluating Muslims and Islam. If someone were to ask what this article is about I would begin to speak on the significant effects the internet has in shaping and controlling public opinion based on power relations. Choosing Islam as a topic of discussion, people are leaning more towards either religious users or political users. With that being said, that makes Muslim a controversial topic that has transformed users from simply consumers to now active creators of information by choosing what message should or should not be spread. The term ‘hate speech’ becomes the creation of the term Islamophobia. Islam is described as ‘the new enemy of the West’, resulting in many stereotypes from terrorism, misogyny, brutalism and violence.
  • Alsultany, Evelyn. “The Cultural Politics of Islam in U.S. Reality Television.” Communication, Culture & Critique 9.4 (2015): 595-613. Web.
    • This article looks into the portrayal of Middle Eastern identities post-9/11 in the media. It first looks into the increase in number of Middle Eastern Americans on television in general, but mostly focuses on two television shows TLC’s All-American Muslim (AAM) and Bravo’s Shahs of Sunset (SOS). Its reason for the increase of Middle Eastern Americans on television was with good intentions to be the antidote to stereotypes against the people. The two shows worked in different ways to represent the people group. AAM, which went on for one season, worked to normalize by incorporating Islam into patriotism, while SOS, which went on for three seasons, avoids the focus of Islam. It draws the connection of how they portrayed the group to the shows that they were broadcasted on, TLC and Bravo. While TLC’s shows tend to focus on portraying the lives of others that we tend to know little about, Bravo’s shows focus more on the rich and glamour lifestyles. Many controversy for the AAM were shown from both the Muslim population and the others saying that the cast were not “real Muslim” or that they were trying to brainwash the American people to believe that Muslims are nice American people. Bravo’s SOS on the other hand portrayed the six Iranian American friends as rich, obnoxious narcissists. Though they were commented on how shallow and despicable the cast were, it was more popular.
  • Arana, Gabriel. “Islamophobic Media Coverage Is Out Of Control. It Needs To Stop.” The Huffington Post., 19 Nov. 2015. Web. 10 Mar. 2017.


  • Conway, K. “Little Mosque, Small Screen: Multicultural Broadcasting Policy and Muslims on Television.” Television & New Media 15.7 (2013): 648-63. Web.
    • This article talks about the television show Little Mosque on the Prairie that aired in 2007-2012 in Canada. Conway writes how the show was used as a tool to change the stereotypical perspective the Muslim population was receiving in the post-9/11 era, where Islamophobia was openly exposed. The article dissects the production and the translation of the show and how a TV show was used to influence the people rather than the government or a policy. It also talks about the filmmaker, the setting, plot structure of the show itself, and the general view of Islam in Canada, and how the show was used to change this view.


  • Green, Todd H. “Professional Islamophobia.” The Fear of Islam: An Introduction to Islamophobia in the West, Augsburg Fortress, Publishers, 2015, pp. 205–232.
    • This is a chapter from Green that goes into further detail on how certain industries profit from demonizing those in the Muslim community and Islam in general. He focuses on how “Islamophobia Industry” is becoming so prominent in Western Culture due to the networks that have capitalized on the anxieties and fears of Americans about the Middle East. This is another source that focuses mainly on news, representation of Muslims and American Muslims in the news, and how they have been taken advantage of by the media to pedal a false narrative of violence, religious extremism, and terrorism that Americans now have a cause for concern about.


  • Green, Todd H. “Muslims in the Media and at the Movies.” The Fear of Islam: An Introduction to Islamophobia in the West, Augsburg Fortress, Publishers, 2015, pp. 233–266.
    • This another chapter from Green that talks about how media has historically been pressured to report on Muslims in a way that appeases the dominant ideas held about Muslim and Islam in American culture, stemming from events of terrorism, violence against women, and religious extremism. This concerns not only the US, but major UK news publications as well. The text asserts that the US media’s representation of Muslims as violent is so strong, that mass shootings and acts of violence in the US have been quickly labeled as tied to Islam, even when this is not the case (the author sites very specific, recent examples of this).  Overall this is a strong scholarly source because it elaborates on a variety of examples of how Muslim and Islam culture is misrepresented in Western news publications, and how the cycle of this actively operates.


  • Kuruvilla, Carol. “15 Fashionable Muslim Women To Follow On Instagram.” The Huffington Post., 13 Jan. 2016. Web. 10 Mar. 2017.


  • Lam, Melissa. “The Politics of Fiction: A Response to New Orientalism in Type.” Journal of Multicultural Discourses, vol. 4, no. 3, Nov. 2009, pp. 257-262


  • Namrata Tripathi  . “How you can help Seattle in its war against hate crimes.” International Business Times, India Edition. International Business Times, India Edition, 30 Nov. 2016. Web. 06 Mar. 2017.


  • Ryzik, Melena. “Can Television Be Fair to Muslims?” The New York Times. The New York Times, 30 Nov. 2016. Web.


  • Siebel Newsom, J. (2011) Miss Representation. Virgil Films and Entertainment, LLC.


  • Stanley, Jason. “The Problem of Propaganda.” How Propaganda Works. Princeton UP, 2015. 1-26. Web


  • Torrens, Alexa. “How Media Portrayal of Islam and Muslims Influences Islamophobia.” The Independent Student Newspaper of Syracuse, New York. The Daily Orange, 9 Feb. 2016. Web.


  • Women, International Museum of. “How does the media portray Muslim women?” How does the media portray Muslim women? | IMOW Muslima. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Mar. 2017.


  • “#DearSister: Muslim women are using this Twitter hashtag to highlight prejudice on social media.” Topics. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Mar. 2017.
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