El-Sayed el-Aswad. “The Dynamics of Identity Reconstruction among Arab
Communities in the United States.” Anthropos, vol. 101, no. 1, 2006, pp. 111–121.,
www.jstor.org/stable/40466623 (Links to an external site.).

This article examines the difficulties in the cultural transition and transformation for Arab Americans since the attacks of September 11th. It states that one of the effects of how the Arab Americans have kept their intrinsic values is by implementing an “Arab American double identity”, thereby keeping the Arab traditions in private while appearing more American and less-so Arab while in the midst of the American public (el-Aswad, 112). It also covers the topics of preserving traditional values while conforming to globalization, and the emergence of the “transnational Arab” which seeks comfort in their homelands because of feeling alienated in the western world (United States specifically). The author is el-Sayed el-Aswad, PhD., a professor of Anthropology at the University of Bahrain and previously held Chair in the Department of Sociology at Tanta University, Egypt. The audience appears to be mainly cultural researchers, ethnographers, or Arab studies students and professors. It was published in 2006. I recommend this book to my peers because it tackles the issues of how Arab Americans (not just Muslims) are represented and must conform to American ideals or ‘hide’ parts of their Arab identity because of fear after the attacks of 9/11. I found it useful in showing how the American representation of Arabs is skewed in a negative fashion and makes Arab Americans, at least many of those in Detroit, Michigan, feel unwelcome in certain ways and torn between two worlds of culture. It helps us understand the negative representation of Arab Americans because of the fear associated with 9/11.


Gerges, Fawaz A. “Islam and Muslims in the Mind of America.” The Annals of the
American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 588, 2003, pp. 73–89.,
www.jstor.org/stable/1049855 (Links to an external site.).

This article examines a broad history of Islam and Muslims and how its relation with the West have changed drastically over the last century. It mentions the coalition between Western nations such as France or Britain and the Ottoman Empire, while also mentioning the events leading to the more predominantly negative portrayal of Muslims with the events such as the Arab-Israeli War erupting in 1973, to the rise of extremist Islam through the Iranian Revolution, to the fear emergent from 9/11. I would describe this article as a clear perspective on the negative portrayal of Islam in the U.S. while also examining the origins of such beliefs.The author is Fawaz A. Gerges, holds “Christian A. Johnson Chair in International Affairs and Middle East Studies at Sarah Lawrence College” (Gerges, 73). The audience of this article is mostly those involved in the fields of Middle East Studies, Policy Studies, and Media and Communication Studies. It was influential and “his articles have appeared in several of the most prestigious journals in the United States, Europe, and the Middle East” (Gerges, 73). It was published in 2003. I recommend this text to my peers because it gives an in depth history of relations between Islam/Islamic nations and the West and insight into the representations (usually misrepresentations) of Muslims and Islam in the media of the West. It explains where some of the negative perspectives and stereotypes come from while noting the illegitimacy of these stereotypes. I found this article particularly useful in understanding the representation of Islam. It helps us understand more about the emergence of particular stereotypes and the disadvantageous effects these skewed perspectives have in a cultural and historical fashion


Gudekli, Ismail Aysad, and Ibrahim Celik. “KADININ CİNSEL BİR SİMGE OLARAK
Journal of Yaşar University 9.35 (2014): 6129. Web.\

This article talks about how woman is portrayed in the advertisement in Turkish Cosmopolitan magazine. The study focuses on how the content in the media will affect people’s mind and what the meanings are based on how women were shown. They compared the advertisement of 1990’s, 2000’s till 2010’s and how the image of women’s body were shown in that period; also, they examined how women was affected by it.


Tukachinsky, Riva, et al. “Documenting Portrayals of Race/Ethnicity of Primetime
Television over a 20-year Span and Their Association with National level
Racial/Ethnic Attitudes.” Journal of Social Issues, vol. 71, no. 1, Mar. 2015, pp.17-38.

The case study analyzes U.S. tv shows from 1987 to 2009. It examines how Latinos were under-representation and how the tv shows stereotype latinos as hyper-sexualized characters. It also compared the quantity and quality between latinos and caucasian. The author then goes in depth about how caucasian’s attitude towards latinos and how latinos feels about being under-representation.


Suggested Reading:

“Cultural Perspective.” Journal of Advertising Research 48.1 (2008): 71. Web.

HAJELA, SHARON COHEN and DEEPTI. “Obama racial legacy: Pride, promise, regret _ and deep rift.” The Big Story. N.p., 4 Jan. 2017. Web. 12 Mar. 2017. <http://bigstory.ap.org/article/29b24a7985a442d8b890261da99cad86/obama-racial-legacy-pride-promise-regret-and-deep-rift>.

Zimmerman, Amanda, and John Dahlberg. “The Sexual Objectification of Women in
Advertising: A Contemporary Cultural Perspective.” Journal of Advertising Research
48.1 (2008): 71. Web.

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