Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. Persuasive Appeals in Advertisements

3. Coca-cola: A history of consumer psychology shift and change in representation.

4. Political advertising and Persuasion in the 2016 presidential election

5. Suggested Readings


Ruosen Zhao, Berthrand Obianozie, Ben Ho, Ling Yee Wan, Justin Olan 

Our group project is psychology in advertising. The primary goal of advertisement is to persuade by appealing to credulity, logic, and emotions. In the history of advertising, advertisers had utilized the power of psychology to their advantage and exploited fundamental human weaknesses to achieve their goal. Many of these psychological techniques is often seen in marketing campaigns and it is becoming increasingly complicated. The way that the product is being represented dictates and creates the trend in consumer culture, the use of icons and symbols, the coloration on the cover of the product are all designed to enhance the advertiser’s persuasive power. Some example research questions for our topic include, why does car advertiser always use female model to present their car? Why does advertiser always tell you there is a limited amount of time before the spot will be taken?

The three case studies we are introducing are persuasive appeal in advertisement, Coca cola: a history of consumer psychology shift and change in representation, political advertising and persuasion in the 2012-2016 presidential election. These three distinct case study look into how advertising psychology was employed as a way of mobilizing consumers or voters, they cover a wide range of advertising and marketing techniques that are ubiquitous in today’s consumer culture.

Our subject of study is important in that without the proper understanding how how advertiser’s deceive you, consumers end up making the wrong choices about what they need and want. Coca-Cola, for example, is always linking their product with the idea of happiness. However, there are serious health concerns with Coca-Cola, it is bad for your teeth, for your fitness, and these damages are physical and visible. It is very important that when we see an commercial, we  recognize what exactly is it that we are seeing. Advertising psychology also goes beyond the realm of consumer psychology, it can also affect a lot of the important decision that we make, some of these decisions can change the direction of our lives. For example, your career choices is affected by advertisement. The companies that had done a good job at public relations might appear to be more attractive, but in fact, not an ideal place to work. Your choice of marriage partner is also affected by advertisers, physical attractiveness is considered the number one priority as a result of Media propaganda.

In sum, the Media and their use of advertising psychology is changing our lifes in a major way, and the only way we can avoid being dictated by the advertiser is to understand the issue with misrepresentation.

Persuasive Appeals in Advertisements

How many times have you seen a teeth-whitening commercial that portrays someone with a bright, white teeth as more attractive, sexy and appealing? Or viewed an ad that pertains to how a particular cereal is a healthy and hearty choice of food for your kids? Or just think of any other product, such as, medications, cleaning products, insurance companies, cars, etc. They use some type of persuasion to appeal a product to you. These tactics to sway a consumer’s mind into finding a particular product enticing is considered the science of advertising also known as the psychology of advertising.(4) In an address before the Agate Club of Chicago the speaker said: “As advertisers, all your efforts have been to produce certain effects on the minds of possible customers. Psychology is, broadly speaking, the science of the mind. Art is the doing and science is the understanding how to do, or the explanation of what has been done. If we are able to find and to express the psychological laws upon which the art of advertising is based, we shall have made a distinct advance, for we shall have added the science to the art of advertising.” (2) This case study will focus on the importance and influence of psychology in advertisements. I will not necessarily go into details on all the different persuasion tactics used in the media, although I will give a few examples, but I’ll focus primarily on how psychology influences consumers’ choices.

Many scientist have researched the power of psychology in advertising and most have established the link between high persuasion power and the three classes of our basic needs — system needs, social need and self-need, in which are the source of our vulnerability to hidden persuasion. In fact, many times when an advertiser uses the imagery and language that taps into any of these needs, the consumer/audience finds it difficult to resist the persuasive power of the message. (3) Before diving deeper into the science of advertising, it might make more sense to clarify and fully understand what each of these three needs are.

1. System needs, this is our hardwired sensors that triggers behavior beyond our control. For example, the fear and flight response that is automatically triggered when we encounter danger. Furthermore, this is the most basic need of the three and also the most uncontrollable of them all.

2. Social needs, this is the need to belong and be respected by friends and strangers alike. Even though we might perceive ourselves as being utterly free and independent of others, we still look to others for approval and guidance. Thus, creating an easy avenue for advertisers to tap into our needs for social acceptance.

3. Self needs, which is the need that is the most important of the three. The need to avoid pain or suffering but rather to strive for pleasure. The need to be financially stable or even rich and wealthy, have good food and clothes but most important of all is the safety needs. Advertisers are able to cater to this need by creating the illusion of a safer and worry-free future.

According to Gillian Dyer, advertisers use, among other techniques, the following lines of appeal. They use images of or references to these things to tap into our desires – and fears: Happy families – everyone wants to belong; Rich, luxurious lifestyles –aspirational; Dreams and fantasy; Successful romance and love; Elite people or experts; Glamorous places; Successful careers; Art, culture & history; Nature & the natural world; Beautiful women – men AND women like looking at beautiful women, so the thinking goes: men admire them, women admire what makes the men admire them. (5)

In addition to appealing to an individual needs, advertisers use multiple persuasive tools in getting the message across to their audience. Some of which includes but not limited to the use of humor, repetition, emotional messages etc. Adverts that audiences find humorous have been found to be more memorable. The same can be said about repetition. Repetition of slogans, images, brand names are examples of things that are used. This tool also has one of the most lasting effect on audiences. Other examples of persuasive tools the media uses are sexual appeals, shock tactics and more. (1)

Below are three examples of adverts with different persuasive elements.  These are Ads that either cater to our needs or uses some sort of persuasive technique to appeal a product to us. Let’s start from left to right, with the first being an ad by Kellogg. This ad presented a Rice Krispies Cereal with the addition of a fruit thereby catering to our need to be healthy- our self-need. The second pertains to a McDonald ad that presents the word “crave” in bold and large fonts which essentially tells the audience to crave the world famous fries. This ad appeals to our social need by stating everyone eat this famous fries all around the world, therefore, you should eat it too.  While the last one deviates from using any basic need as an advertising mechanism but rather opted for a shocking tactic. This ad was presented by the Patil Hospital & Lata Patil Clinic. This ad presented pills in forms of bullets thereby insinuating that medication can kill, however, by consulting a doctor a fatal incident could be prevented. It also added an explicit message stating “Can you treat yourself better than your doctor? Self-medication can put your life in danger. Always consume medicines only after consulting your doctor”

Agenda setting, framing, and priming each play a large part in the persuasive appeal of advertising. They are tactics used not only in ads, but also in media as a whole to convey certain messages.

Agenda setting in media controls what issues people think about, even if the media could not influence them on what to think of those issues. “Agenda setting is a relational concept that specifies a transfer of salience from agenda primers to agenda adopters” [6]. It controls the importance of certain topics, and priorities certain topics over others. This is the primary goal of advertising, as they focus consumer’s attention on what products or brands to think about, rather than persuading what to think about the product.

Framing is similar to agenda-setting, but it in essence the opposite as it focuses on how to think about issue instead of what issue to focus on. “Framing is subtle but distinct difference between various conceptualizations” [7]. Framing is how something is presented to consumers, which effects the choices people make about how to process the information. It constructs message meaning, and how to think about a certain topic. An essential part of framing is that framing is based on how people frames their own life. For example, the majority of people are right handed, their dominant side. In result, people are most attractive to an advertisement where a cup handle is facing the right side. Advertisements also are used to trigger emotion. Usually advertisements are categorized as positive or negative to the viewer. Negative advertisements are generally more effective than positive advertisements because consumers care more when they are negatively affected rather than positively.


Priming in advertising is the idea that seeing a certain advertisement will effect what your needs will be in the future. A classic example is of a food advertisement, then when the viewer sees this, they become hungry because of the stimulation of appealing food. Priming is an effective way of persuasion. An advertisement emphasizing the large size of a car, would after emphasize its safety. It primes the consumer with the size of the car, making the consumer aware of the size. Only after it highlights its safety, its pitch for safety is more effective with the consumer already informed the large size of the car. This would not work with gas efficiency, as large cars usually have bad miles per gallon.

In conclusion, there are many aspect of psychological influences present in today’s ad/media, all of which cannot be covered in this essay, however, the most important note to takeaway is the power of psychological persuasion and the ability for advertisers to tap into individual needs thereby creating an irresistible appeal of a product. So the next time you watch an ad, make sure to think thoroughly by identifying the need in which that particular ad is inducing. Is it a social need which pertains to your need to look sexier or feel among or a self-need—an ad that might have persuaded you to invest in something for your future or wellbeing, perhaps even a medication or supplement to help you lose weight? Overall, those are just some of the many ways the media have continuously and successfully altered our responses to certain products with the help of different and numerous persuasive appeals.

Work Cited

1. Merritt, Grant. “The Effects of Humor and Non-humor Techniques in Television Commercials When Placed in Different Program Environment: An Experiment with Car Insurance Commercials” 05, May. 2011. 06 Mar. 2017. (Links to an external site.)

2. Scott, Walter D. “The Psychology of Advertising.” The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 01 Jan. 1904. Web. 06 Mar. 2017. <;.

3. Andrews, Marc, Mattheis Lars Van Leeuwen, and Rickert Bart Van Baaren. Hidden persuasion: 33 effective influence techniques in visual communication. Amsterdam: Bis, 2013. Print.

4. “The Psychology of Advertising.” World of Psychology. N.p., 15 Feb. 2011. Web. 06 Mar. 2017. <;.

5. Dyer, Gillian. Advertising as communication. London: Methuen, 1982. Print.

6. Ghorpade, Shailendra. “Agenda Setting: A Test of Advertising’s Neglected Function.” Journal of Advertising Research 26.4 (1986): 23. Web

7. Scheufele, Da. “Framing as a Theory of Media Effects.” Journal of Communication 49.1 (1999): 103-22. Web.

8. Yi, Youjae. “Cognitive and Affective Priming Effects of the Context for Print Advertisements.” Journal of Advertising 19.2 (1990): 40-48. Web.

Coca-cola: A history of consumer psychology shift and change in representation.

Coca-Cola as a leading brand in the Beverage Industry is not only famous for their taste but also famous for their Innovative commercials. In this case study, we will analyze a number of examples of Coca-Cola commercials and how they utilize the theory of representation in consumer psychology to enhance its persuasive power.


One of the key concept often reflected in the recent Coca-Cola’s commercial is the idea of positive psychology, the strategy that was implemented in early 2000. These Coca-Colas commercial were very successful and refreshing due to the fact that consumers are tired of the conventional advertising tricks that are lacking in emotional appeal and blatantly exploit human weaknesses, such as hunger marketing. Positive psychology focuses on appealing to positive emotions such as happiness, and sense of satisfaction. For example, the mascot of Coca-Cola is a polar bear(Picture 1.1), thus significantly enhances its appeal with people from all age and ethnic background.  In one of our class reading, Mccloud argues, [1]“When you enter the realm of cartoon you see yourself….The cartoon is a Vaccum into which our identity and awareness are pulled”, As Coca-Cola campaign slogan goes “Happiness is for everyone”, every one can imagine themselves being the lovely polar bear. They “uses the appeal of basic emotions, especially the appeal to happiness” (Ioana Santa, 21) The appeal to emotion is crucial, as it is something that any consumer can relate to, whereas, with the rational appeal, everybody is different. Moreover, the color signal red signifies excitement. The way it is represented, the contrast of red on white(polar bear drinking coke) highlights the red icon and make it more memorable to the customers. The power of Icons comes from the messages that it signifies, and that message has a major impact on consumer’s decision-making process. According to an article written by William Castellan, an experiment was conducted where people are asked to describe their preference of Coke product. During the test, Coca-Cola was put in Pepsi bottle and vice versa, the conclusion was “ Taste comparison of colas should avoid using any labels, even presumably neutral ones like letters of the alphabet, since such labels may have more powerful influences on product comparisons than taste differences.”[2] We saw that letters of alphabet, as a form of symbolic communication method has a strong influence over consumers decision, there can be complex feelings attached to simple words, and these feelings are produced through advertisement. It is clear that the effect of a combination of excitement(Which the brand Icon convey) and the sense of happiness( which is expressed in the commercials) majorly contribute to Coca-Cola’s successful marketing campaign. [3]

Lastly, according to the Social Representations of Happiness, social representations are essential “designs of interpretation of the individual’s experiences which(…), besides the phenomenon’s image also implies the creative expression of human subjectivity.”[4] Essentially when advertisements such as Coca-Cola’s are made, it is made with an open mind that anyone can interpret differently. A great example of Coca-Cola’s advertisement is their 2014 Super Bowl ad: ‘America is Beautiful’. The Super Bowl is a massive sports event that many will see, specifically “111.5 million people” watched the advertisement “America The Beautiful”[5]

This advertisement from Coca-Cola became a very hot topic due to its “controversial” theme which portrayed various people of different ethnicities singing the song in 9 different languages. Which then lead to a huge backlash and debate against this multilingual rendition of “America the Beautiful”. Right after the advertisement aired on live T.V everyone right away jumped onto Twitter where trending hashtags such as “#BoycottCoke and #SpeakAmerican began.[6] This example is a great example of a “social representation” where some may have different interpretation it as something very beautiful and even more relevant to today’s political debates and the stand on immigration. However, the true questions lie where, why would Coca-Cola who is known for making their “happy” advertisements decide to air this specific ad during one of the biggest events in America? What we can deduct for sure is that it became a huge debate, maybe this is the works of their marketing strategies, and even full knowingly that this will bring forth “emotions”. Because of these “emotions” being ranted all on social media, it also gave Coca-Cola a lot of publicity and as advertisers say, there is no such thing as bad publicity.

Works Cited

1. McCloud, Scott. (1993) “The Vocabulary of Comics.” Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art. Northampton, Mass, 24-59.

2. Ciotti, Gregory. “The Psychology of Color in Marketing and Branding.” Help Scout Blog. N.p., 17 May 2016. Web. 04 Mar. 2017.

3. Castellan, William. “Pepsi versus Coke.” Psychological Report. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2017.

4. “Did Coke Hijack Positive Psychology?” Psychology Today. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2017.

5. Hoffman, Brooke Y. “Online Responses to a Multilingual Super Bowl Ad: Is ‘America the Beautiful’ by any Other Language Still America, the Beautiful?.” International Journal of Multilingualism, vol. 13, no. 2, May 2016, pp. 213-229. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/14790718.2015.1094075.

6. Casaqui, Vander and Viviane Riegel. “Management of Happiness, Production of Affects and the Spirit of Capitalism: International Narratives of Transformation from Coca-Cola Brand.” Journal of International Communication, vol. 22, no. 2, Aug. 2016, pp. 293-314. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/13216597.2016.1194304.

Political advertising and Persuasion in the 2016 presidential election.

Today, in the age of advances in information technology, most of the people are interacting  with Media, like surfing on the internet, watching the television, using social media. Media is important, it keeps improving and enlarging people’s mind and knowledge. Media is a medium to let people to receive different messages. We can do research on the internet to assist our education, we can use social media to keep contact with friends, we can watch news and received messages from advertising.

For the Presidential Elections, it is a big event that is serious and important to the citizens. To choose a president carefully, citizens must understand about their plan from the candidates. However, not everyone will take the initiative to understand the candidates’ political platform because some people might be politically apathetic. Therefore, political advertising can have great effect on this elections.

After viewing a political advertising of the presidential elections, people want to know more about the candidates.  According to the article Effects of Political Advertising in the 2008 Presidential Campaign, “In 2008 Obama’s success in fund-raising resulted in record expenditures on political television advertising. This experimental study tested the effects of Obama and McCain ads on 1,165 young citizens at 19 locations throughout the United States. Results indicated young citizens learned significantly more about the political positions of both McCain and Obama when viewing attack ads.” [1] It is because advertisement with personal attacks can significant influence voters decision as we naturally remember criticism better than compliments. Moreover, it’s effect can help people increase the willingness to participate the political system as we are more likely to take actions to stop certain candidates instead of support a certain candidate. [2]

Unlike the previous elections, In the recent 2016 presidential election, we witnessed a shift in how the Media works. President trump’s unconventional campaign strategy had not only broke all the previous laws of political campaign but also proven to be very effective. First of all, the platform he chose to use to express his views is social media, a new form of communication method which allows politicians to speak directly to his audience and avoid being argubly misrepresented by the Media that are controled by special interest. However, social media can also hurt politicians by subtle manipulating user’s video commercial feed. For example, facebook [3]had multipulated advertising content for their users in the recent presidential election, one of the video commercial feed was celebrities encouraging people to vote, although the commercial appear to be unbiased, the ideology they spread was against one of the candidate. By using the celebrity effect and the power of representation and emotional appeal, facebook as a social media platform was able to psychologically tap into the voters subconcious without appearing to be “educating” their users about which candidate to choose. The use of celebrity in political ad help weakens our natural tendency toward disbelief of advertising claims, not only toward the advertising content, but also toward advertisers motive. Moreover, facebook has a tremendous amount of information on their users, by learning what content you “liked”,[4] they are able to know which type of commercial will have the strongest psychological effect, and use them to target potential voters. Lastly, one of the famous psychology theory is that negative mood is associated risk avoidance, by showing negative content to their users, the voters are more likely to vote for candidate that try to avoid radical changes. In most of these political commercials, three stages were used to enhance its persuasive power and change user’s psychological state as described by Peter Wignell.[5] The first stage was “affirmative choice”( I vote for…), second stage is “Justification”(because he/she…..), the third stage was “attentive gaze”( concerned, worried). Through these three simple steps, these commercials are able to “ engage or align the viewers” [6]. Specifically, we are engaged in two ways, first, we are able to identify with the character in the political commercial because we have a common goal, we want a better future. Secondly, these commercials provokes our desire to take actions to protect our future.

Works Cited

1. “Negative Political Ads and Their Effect on Voters: Updated Collection of Research.”Journalist’s Resource. Research round, 20 Dec. 2016. Web. 04 Mar. 2017.

2.”The 2014 Youth Vote.” What Kids Can Do. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Mar. 2017.

3.Isaac, Mike. “Facebook, in Cross Hairs After Election, Is Said to Question Its Influence.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 12 Nov. 2016. Web. 11 Mar. 2017.

4.Generation like. Dir. Douglas Rushkoff. Perf. Social Media Scholars and Teenager. Front Line. N.p., 18 Feb. 2014. Web

5.Feng, Dezheng, and Peter Wignell. “Intertextual Voices and Engagement in TV Advertisements.” Visual Communication 10.4 (2011): 565-88. Web.

6.Ridout, Travis N., and Michael M. Franz. The Persuasive Power of Campaign Advertising. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 2011. Print

Suggested Readings

1.Obermiller, Carl, and Eric R. Spangenberg. “Development of a Scale to Measure Consumer Skepticism Toward Advertising.”Journal of Consumer Psychology 7.2 (1998): 159-86. Web.

This article addresses the issue of consumer psychology and skepticism toward mass media advertising. Specifically the effect of established scale validity and how these effects subtlely affect buyers preference and its persuasability under free markets. In the article, he made three major arguments. First of all, consumers have a tendency toward disbelief of advertising claims, not only toward the advertising content, but also toward advertisers motive. Second, Skepticism is influential and probablistic, a skeptical consumer might believe in claims that a normal consumer doesn’t believe. Lastly, he mentioned that some ad, by their nature, are less believable than others.  I would definitly recommend it to my peers because it is closely related to our project.

2.Feng, Dezheng, and Peter Wignell. “Intertextual Voices and Engagement in TV Advertisements.” Visual Communication 10.4 (2011): 565-88. Web.

Intertextual voices and engagement in TV advertisement

This article is appropriate for my group project in that the authors of this article are reputable scholars on Adversiment discourse and more importantly, it examines how advertisers use different narratives to enhance its persuasive power.It also analyzes how product relates to contextualization. Although, this article is not particularly influential when its published, but i believe this would be an amazing source for hour group project.

3.Selling (Digital) Millennials

The Social Construction and Technological Bias of a Consumer Generation

Basically what this article is about in a really summarized way, how to sell to the new generation. By new generation the article means like “youth culture, youth markets” which can be using like pop culture to grab the youth’s attention and advertising on the internet as a primary strategy. Since we are entering the “digital revolution” we should adapt to the “digital” style. So what I can say and how this is related to our topic would be like it’s important to stay “up-to date” with the trends and it should visually appealing even or even crazy/funny stunts that grabs the audience attentions.(spreads the word)
4.The ad format-strategy effect on comparative advertising effectiveness.

Abstract: Purpose Extant research on comparative advertising has focused only on “market leader” comparisons (a brand targeting the market leader), whereas in the marketplace, “multi-brand” comparisons are more prevalent (Kalro et al., 2010). Moreover, most research focuses on direct comparisons only. Hence, this research aims to investigate the interplay between comparison ad strategy (“market leader”/“multi-brand” comparisons) and comparison ad format (direct/indirect comparisons) on the effectiveness of comparative advertising.Design/methodology/approach This paper uses four 2 × 2 fully crossed factorial designs (comparison ad format: direct vs indirect and comparison ad strategy: market leader vs multi brand) with established and new brands in two categories: powdered detergents and smart phones. All studies were conducted in metropolitan cities of India.Findings By and large, the experiments indicated that direct (indirect) comparisons lowered (heightened) perceived manipulative intent and enhanced (reduced) attitude-toward-the-ad for multi-brand (market leader) comparisons.Practical implications Findings suggest that when advertisers use comparative advertising, they may use direct ads when using multi-brand comparisons and use indirect ones when using market leader comparisons. It could also be argued that when advertisers use multi-brand comparisons because of fragmentation in the marketplace, they may directly compare against these multiple brands. When advertisers need to compare against a market leader, they may do so indirectly.Originality/value This research is among the first to investigate multi-brand comparisons that are widely used in the industry and that too in the context of both direct and indirect comparison formats.

5.Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, vol. 56, 1: pp. 1238-1242. , First Published December 20, 2016.

The topic of this journal is Acceptance of Advertising and Collection of Personal Information. The author is Joshua B. Hurwitz,Ph.D. Nowadays, everyone’s daily life must involve with media. Such as surfing the net, watch television, listen to music. And the most popular media is social media. Since there are a lot of new social media is coming out. For example, FaceBook, Instagram, Youtube, those are the most popular social media in nowadays. We can see that there are a lot of advertising in those social media because there are a lot of people will use those media that’s why it is the best place to publish the advertisement. For showing the advertisement that people want to see,  these  companies  collect sensitive information, such asusers’ locations, contact lists, calendars,  communications, postings, and consumption of content. People have privacy concerns after these things happened. These concerns can reduce the trust of products and service providers, thereby reducing the willingness of consumers to use mobile services (such as location-based services) and doing business on the Internet. In order to solve such problems, applications and services are more networks that have tools to enable them to better control their privacy.While the evidence suggests that providing more useful privacy disclosures and controls increases the user’s confidence in the data collector, such tools may also increase user workload. As a result, many users can see these tools as being affected by their efficient use of applications and services. I will recommend this article to my friends because teenagers are the target audience of those media. I think they can understand more the privacy problem on the internet and learn how to protect their own privacy.

6.Journal of Communication Inquiry, vol. 26, 3: pp. 277-299. , First Published Jul 1, 2002.

Thie article topic is Observing Discourses of Advertising: Mobitel’s Interpellation of Potential Consumers and the author are Mojca Pajnik and Petra Lesjak-TuŠek.Advertising appeals to people in such a way that it affects their choices. Advertisers operate on different discourses, which are both language and nonverbal.This article explores how contemporary advertising discourse describes individuals as subjects. Ideology work in Althusser’s words is discussed on the basis of the “voice” of the advertiser.The theory was practiced in case of studies: Mobitel’s two advertising campaigns. The semiotics method is used to discuss the representation and connotation of the advertisement and to point to the ideological nature of the advertisement and the promising new and desired discourse lifestyle.

Other readings

1.Feng, Dezheng, and Peter Wignell. “Intertextual Voices and Engagement in TV Advertisements.” Visual Communication 10.4 (2011): 565-88. Web.

2.Obermiller, Carl, and Eric R. Spangenberg. “Development of a Scale to Measure Consumer Skepticism Toward Advertising.”Journal of Consumer Psychology 7.2 (1998): 159-86. Web.

3.Ridout, Travis N., and Michael M. Franz. The Persuasive Power of Campaign Advertising. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 2011. Print.

4.Hollbrook, Morris. “Consumer Value.” Google Books. N.p., Mar. 2007. Web. 11 Mar. 2017.

5.Reynolds, Garr. Presentation Zen: Simple Ideas on Presentation Design and Delivery. Berkeley, CA: New Riders, 2012. Print.

6.Schutz, Michael, et al. “Name That Percussive Tune: Associative Memory and Amplitude Envelope.” Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol. 70, no. 7, July 2017, pp. 1323-1343. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/17470218.2016.1182562.

7.Hung, Yung, et al. “Motivation Outweighs Ability in Explaining European Consumers’ Use of Health Claims.” Food Quality & Preference, vol. 58, June 2017, pp. 34-44. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.foodqual.2017.01.001.

8.Branscum, Paul and H. Michael Crowson. “The Association between Environmental and Psychosocial Factors Towards Physical Activity and Screen Time of Children: An Application of the Integrative Behavioural Model.” Journal of Sports Sciences, vol. 35, no. 10, 15 May 2017, pp. 982-988. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/02640414.2016.1206666.